Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Discarded Phlogiston Theory in Early Chemistry

Mankind may have learned how to make fire many thousands of years ago, but we didnt understand how it worked until much more recently. Many theories were proposed to try to explain why some materials burned, while others didnt, why fire gave off heat and light, and why burned material wasnt the same as the starting substance. Phlogiston theory was an early chemical theory to explain the process of oxidation, which is the reaction that occurs during combustion and rusting. The word phlogiston is an Ancient Greek term for burning up, which in turn derives from the Greek phlox, which means flame. Phlogiston theory was first proposed by the alchemist Johann Joachim (J.J.) Becher in 1667. The theory was stated more formally by Georg Ernst Stahl in 1773. Importance of Phlogiston Theory Although the theory has since been discarded, its important because it shows the transition between alchemists believing in the traditional elements of earth, air, fire, and water, and true chemists, who conducted experimentation that led to the identification of true chemical elements and their reactions. How Phlogiston Was Supposed to Work Basically, the way the theory worked was that all combustible matter contained a substance called phlogiston. When this matter was burned, the phlogiston was released.  Phlogiston had no odor, taste, color or mass. After the phlogiston was freed, the remaining matter was considered to be deflogistated, which made sense to the alchemists, because you couldnt burn them any more. The ash and residue left over from combustion was called the calx of the substance. The calx provided a clue to the error of phlogiston theory, because it weighed less than the original matter. If there was a substance called phlogiston, where had it gone? One explanation was the phlogiston might have negative mass. Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau proposed it was simply that phlogiston was lighter than air. Yet, according to Archimedes principle, even being lighter than air couldnt account for the mass change. In the 18th century, chemists did not believe there was an element called phlogiston. Joseph Priestly believed flammability might be related to hydrogen. While phlogiston theory didnt offer all the answers, it remained the principle theory of combustion until the 1780s, when Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier demonstrated mass was not truly lost during combustion. Lavoisier linked oxidation to oxygen, conducting numerous experiments which showed the element was always present. In the face of overwhelming empirical data, phlogiston theory was eventually replaced with true chemistry. By 1800, most scientists accepted oxygens role in combustion. Phlogisticated Air, Oxygen, and Nitrogen Today, we know that oxygen supports oxidation, which is why air helps to feed a fire. If you try to light a fire in a space lacking oxygen, youll have a rough time. The alchemists and early chemists noticed that fire burned in air, yet not in certain other gases. In a sealed contained, eventually a flame would burn out. However, their explanation wasnt quite right. The proposed phlogisticated air was a gas in phlogiston theory that was saturated with phlogiston. Because it was already saturated, phlogisticated air did not allow the release of phlogiston during combustion. What gas were they using that didnt support fire?  Phlogisticated air was later identified as the element nitrogen, which is the primary element in air, and no, it wont support oxidation.

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Sindhu (Indus) River

The Sindhu River, also commonly referred to as the Indus River, is a major waterway in South Asia. One of the longest rivers in the world, the Sindhu has a total length of over 2,000 miles and runs south from the Kailash Mountain in Tibet all the way to the Arabian Sea in Karachi, Pakistan. It is the longest river in Pakistan, also passing through northwestern India, in addition to the Tibetan region of China and Pakistan. The Sindhu is a large part of the river system of the  Punjab, which means land of five rivers. Those five rivers—the Jhelum, Chenab,  Ravi,  Beas, and  Sutlej—eventually flow into the Indus. History of the Sindhu River The Indus Valley is located on the fertile floodplains along the river. This region was home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, which was one of the oldest known civilizations. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence of religious practices starting in about 5500 BCE, and farming began by around 4000 BCE. Towns and cities grew up in the area by about 2500 BCE, and the civilization was at its peak between 2500 and 2000 BCE, coinciding with the civilizations of the Babylonians and Egyptians.   When at its peak, the Indus Valley Civilization boasted houses with wells and bathrooms,  underground drainage systems,  a fully developed writing system,  impressive architecture, and a well-planned urban center. Two major cities,  Harappa  and  Mohenjo-Daro, have been excavated and explored. Remains including elegant jewelry, weights, and other items. Many items have writing on them, but to date, the writing has not been translated. The Indus Valley Civilization began to decline around 1800 BCE. Trade ceased, and some cities were abandoned. Reasons for this decline are unclear, but some theories include flood or drought. Around 1500 BCE, invasions by the Aryans began to erode what was left of the Indus Valley Civilization. The Aryan people settled in their place, and their language and culture have helped to shape the language and culture of todays India and Pakistan. Hindu religious practices may also have their roots in Aryan beliefs. The Sindhu Rivers Significance Today Today, the Sindhu River serves as a key water supply to  Pakistan  and is central to the country’s economy. In addition to drinking water, the river enables and sustains the country’s agriculture.   Fish from the river provide a major source of food to communities along the river’s banks. The Sindhu River is also used as a major transportation route for commerce. Physical Attributes of the Sindhu River The Sindhu River follows a complex path from its origin at 18,000 feet in the Himalayas near Lake Mapam. It flows northwest for roughly 200 miles before crossing into the disputed territory of Kashmir in India and then into Pakistan. It eventually exits the mountainous region and flows into the sandy plains of the Punjab, where its most significant tributaries feed the river. During July, August, and September when the river floods, the Sindhu stretches to several miles wide in the plains. The snow-fed Sindhu River system is subject to flash floods, too. While the river moves quickly through the mountain passes, it moves very slowly through the plains, depositing silt and raising the level of these sandy plains.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Rhino And Elephant Ivory Market - 1792 Words

Abstract As the economic growth in the world continues, Africa continues to lose its self-proclaimed title as the cradle of biodiverse ecosystems which house the mighty African elephant and rhinoceros (otherwise known as the continental herd). Wildlands have been fragmented and forests cleared continuously and at very rapid rates. Rising rates of affluence around the world, especially in Asia has led to the intensity of the black market of the rhino and elephant ivory market which has seen the deterioration of this vast and much needed component of the ecosystem. Many governments within the continent, in conjunction with countless non-profit private institutions have proposed regulated hunting and laws against wildlife poaching. This legislation has seen taxes and fees being generated into these states which have been set as capital for conservation programs which have been both positive and negative. Where positivity has come, the restoration of species has been remarkably recorded, for example the white rhino in Southern Africa In places where these conservation programs are poorly managed, the benefits are much harder to prove, especially in ecosystems where the populations have already been depleted. This paper will ensue a descriptive knowledge of numbers and distribution of the elephant and rhinoceros examining the changes in population. It will also site the methods, including framework for improved forest governance, in which innovative, successful and lastingShow MoreRelatedPoaching Problem1738 Words   |  7 Pagescome up with. Poaching has caused many problems that could lead to catastrophic and irreversible events. Innocent animals are the victims of the ruthless poachers. For animals such as rhinos or elephants, poachers hack off the animals’ horns or tusks with axes. The horns of rhinos are so sought after because â€Å"rhino horns are extremely valuable, commanding prices up to $100,000 per kg† (â€Å"Big Game, Big Money: Inside the Illegal Wildlife Trade† 3:37). The work for an animal’s horn or tusk does not endRead MoreInternational Union For Conservation Of Nature1488 Words   |  6 PagesImagine you are this beautiful elephant peacefully drinking water from the waterhole among other African animals and then you hear gun shots firing everywhere. You are running for your life when suddenly everything becomes pitch black, then you open your eyes and see a man with a gun pointing at your head laughing as you lay dying. The general point is that almost all animals are getti ng to the brink of extinction or are either being tagged as an endangered species by the IUCN Red List. The IUCNRead MorePersuasive Essay On Animal Poaching934 Words   |  4 PagesThink of the last time you saw a tiger rug or an ivory figurine, even on television. This is a cause of illegal behavior that is called poaching. The United States is among the largest consumers of ivory, according to Jani Actman. Even though ivory is at an almost total ban in the United States people are still purchasing these accessories. In the advertisement the creator used transfer method to make the person seeing this advertisement more aware of what is happening, most people dont understandRead MoreWildlife Management in Africa Essay1683 Words   |  7 Pageswell as an international ban on ivory trade. Anti-poaching regulations have in turn stemmed the formation of programs and policies for the management of Africas wildlife. Poaching: Background Poaching, the illegal killing of protected animals, occurs in Africa for a variety of reasons. The most profitable reason is the ivory trade. Hundreds of elephants and Rhinos are slaughtered every year for their ivory tusks, which claim a sizeable profit on the black market. Many hunters also poach forRead MoreNegative Effects Of Poaching1806 Words   |  8 Pagesactivity. At 19 billion dollars per year, some may think of poaching as good business, but there of course is a downside although those who profit will not care so long as they receive their money. Poaching crimes range from the butchering of elephants for their ivory, to the sale of great apes and exotic birds as pets, to caviar, decorative tiger pelts, and rhinoceros horns used for carvings and traditional medicines. Wildlife poaching has negative side-effects that affect local communities, wildlifeRead MoreRhino Poaching And The Exotic Animal Trade1493 Words   |  6 Pagesmake their living by hunting elephants, lions , rhinos, and other exotic animals. Countries in Asia, like Vietnam and China, have been using rhino horn medicinally for generations. Would they be willing to change their entire lifestyle to save the existence of a species? I analyzed an image created by the World Wildlife Fund that addresses rhino poaching and the exotic animal trade. There are two subjects in this image, the rhino and those within the rhino. The rhino is being captured by peopleRead MoreHuman Trafficking And Its Effects On The World1105 Words   |  5 Pagesillegal markets at the expense of other in order to achieve profits. Some have small environmental impact while others affect the world significantly. Some markets that are well documented in media, and are more well known throughout society are drugs, human trafficking, and slavery. These are serious markets that need to be abolished, but have a small impact on the environment. Poachers are people who illegally kill endangered species in order to sell them to the ultra wealthy. This market is complicatedRead MoreHuman Trafficking And Its Effects On The World1103 Words   |  5 Pagesillegal markets at the expense of other in order to achieve profits. Some have small environm ental impact while others affect the world significantly. Some markets that are well documented in media, and are more well known throughout society are drugs, human trafficking, and slavery. These are serious markets that need to be abolished, but have a small impact on the environment. Poachers are people who illegally kill endangered species in order to sell them to the ultra wealthy. This market is complicatedRead MorePoaching of Endangered Species2264 Words   |  10 Pagessuffocates it. Since using these methods they have a success rate on killing the animals, for example elephants in past history the number for them have been rapidly lowering because of poaching. In the 1960’s there were about 30,000 elephants alive and roaming, but in 1982-83 the numbers of elephants went down to about 2,000. The poachers use pitfalls mainly for the larger animals like elephants. People who poach knows the definition of poaching and the history behind it, it’s the people w ho supportRead MoreTaking a Look at Poaching796 Words   |  3 Pagesutilized to make shark blade soup, a delicacy in Asia. Tigers are butchered for their striped hide, elephants are executed for their ivory tusks and rhinos their substantial horn. The groups of the creatures are left to decay. This is an occurrence that happens all over the world, but few governments can deal with the problem in an orderly and efficient manner. Poaching has become a worldwide market and individuals make millions off of hunting these endangered animals. Driven to the boarder of extinction

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Adventures Of Huck Finn Banning From School Essay Example For Students

Adventures Of Huck Finn Banning From School Essay Specifically, it addresses the following question: Columnist James J. Kilpatrick wrote that Huck Finn is a fun book for white boys to read For black children, I have come to realize, it is a brutal slap in the face. He condemns the book because of its use of the word nigger. Many school districts have banned this book for the same reason. What are your views on this subject? Since the Civil War, racism has been a very delicate issue with the American public. Whereas some people have tried to transgress this issue, pretending that race no longer plays a significant role in our country, other people still believe that there are serious racial dilemmas in the United States. I am one these people. However, unlike some, I do not believe this problem can be solved by avoiding or sugarcoating the issue of race, as James L. Kilpatrick and several schools appear to be doing. In the novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Mark Twain presents an adventure story filled with deeper meanings and controversial topics, two in particular being slavery and racism. Despite the usage of the word nigger and the stereotypical portrayal of African Americans, I do not think schools have any justification in banning this book from reading lists. Mark Twain wrote Huck Finn during the Reconstruction period in the south, at a time when most Americans wanted to forget all about the institution of slavery and its consequences. However, Twain set the time period of this novel prior to the Civil War when slavery was at its peak. Thus, the racist views he included in the book mirrored the attitudes of most southerners during this time. Those that say that Huck Finn is inappropriate to be read in schools are in effect saying that a portion of United States history should not be taught in the classroom. Although slavery was one of the most horrific periods in our countries history, to make sure nothing of its caliber ever occurs again, we must make sure every high school student is aware of the ramifications of such practices. By banning an important work in U.S. history, these schools are ignoring the racial sentiments of this time period simply because the language in Huck Finn may not be appropriate. In addition, reading this novel hopefully invokes in people a sense of shame for the mistakes of our ancestors. Though the novels language may offend some, it is Africans Americans and Caucasians alike who are offended. Nobody likes to look at the word nigger nor hear it used, however, we must accept that this word was at one time considered appropriate language. Reading the novel, I was repulsed by this word and my stomach churned as I read about the ignorance and hate stored within the hearts of characters. However, I enjoyed reading this novel and gained a new  perspective of life prior to the Civil War. I think that when schools ban the novel Huck Finn from their curriculum that they are in effect failing their students. Huck Finn is an excellent piece of literature, rich with history, description, and unique perspectives. By not allowing this book to be read in schools is like shutting students out from a valuable learning experience. Yes, they can still read the novel in their spare time, but they are not afforded the privilege to discuss this book openly in class or gain new perspectives into its meaning. In addition, when African Americans refuse to read this novel they are depriving themselves of a experiencing a brilliant piece of literature. I think that until you try something, you cant attack it, or else you are showing your ig norance and stubborn nature. Twain did not write this novel to belittle the African American race or to promote the institution of slavery. Twain wrote this novel to depict life in the South prior to the Civil War. .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c , .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c .postImageUrl , .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c , .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c:hover , .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c:visited , .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c:active { border:0!important; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c:active , .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7d01aa4299d8b9c23bbd0028d1045e6c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: So often, when books or plays get made into movies, the whole story is butchered, and the final outcome is uninteresting EssayAlong with this depiction are the bias and racist attitudes prevalent in South at this time. For all those school administrators who say that the language and ideology of Twains writing is offensive, well, maybe Twain wanted to offend people with this novel. Maybe he wanted to offend them so much that they would come to the realization that individuals should not conform to societys standards, one of these standards being slavery. Until someone is offended, status quo doesnt change. Maybe its about time that we remove the blindfold from our nations youth and stop trying to be politically correct. Maybe its about time that kids are exposed to the true horror of racism and prejudice so to detour them from repeating fatal mistakes.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Andrew Jackson, The Seventh President Of The United States, Was Born O

Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United states, was born on March 15, 1767, in the Waxhaw settlement on the western frontier of South Carolina. Jackson was orphaned at the age of 14 and was brought up by his uncle. Jackson was born into a poor family. When his parents died, he went to live with his Uncle, who was a wealthy slave and land owner. As a result, Jackson moved among wealthy people and property owners, who monopolized the prestige and political influence in the back country. So now he could see what the different lives between the rich and the poor, he became really popular by the common people and also was considered part of the political movement and he led what was know as the Jacksonian Democracy. He could see that the wealthywere huge land owners or industrialized families, and the poor families were small farmers. Jackson was the type who wanted the land to be all American. Dealing with the Native American policy, he forcibly removed southern tribes from lands guaranteed then by federal treaties and the United States Supreme Court decisions. Doing this gave him great power and ledthe United States to a bigger nation, but what does that say about the United States words. Because of them, the Indians could not trust them any more. Jackson was also against slavery. Even Modern historians observe that Jackson was a large slave owner and that his party was the enemy of free blacks and their rights. He was so against African Americans, they denied anti-slavery pamphlets in the United States Postal Service. I think the reason that he liked slavery so much was because that his Uncle was a large slave owner andhe found that they are very useful and could help make money a whole lot faster and cheaper then regular labor. If Jackson was against slavery, I feel that the Slavery issue would have ended a lot faster then it did in the American History. Jackson did do a lot for the country and also made the common people feel like they have a place in today society. If it was just rich people running the country, the rich people would do just what was good for them and not for everyone. That way, the poor people have a chance in the society that was so hard to control. Slavery was not cooled down during his presidency, but it did not get worse at least. Jackson showed a strong presidency during his term and lead America in a good direction to follow. Sometimes America needs a change in Rich vs Poor presidents. Bibliography 1. Future Vision Multimedia Infopedia 2. The Internet 3. New Multimedia Encyclopedia

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

My Thoughts On Love Essays - Why, Free Essays, Term Papers

My Thoughts On Love Essays - Why, Free Essays, Term Papers My Thoughts On Love My thoughts on Love What is love for? Why does it have to be just a word thrown around like a misguided sin? Why do people fall in love? Is it because they want to be hurt? If people realized that love only brings pain and heartache in the end, why bother with it? I cant stand the pain. It has been eating at me for a while now. Love does strange things to people. I feel like im hanging on the edge of a cliff and love has pushed me off the edge. Is it easier in the long run? No! why fall in love when you know you are going to get *censored*ed over in the long run? Love isnt worth it. and girls wonder why guys are such *censored*s to them. did you bitches ever sit back and think about what your doing to provoke the guy to the brink of rippig your neck out with a spoon? why *censored* with our emotions? Is love just some game you play with our hearts? Life is just a game right? Hell yeah it is. It seems like love is winning and people are losing. People have feelings. Love takes all and leaves you with empty promises and broken dreams. why go for it? Bibliography [emailprotected] geocities.com/syylentkiller/index.html

Monday, February 24, 2020

Cour Issues Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Cour Issues Analysis - Research Paper Example Moreover, there is a backlog of cases in the judiciary; this backlog is perhaps an attribute to the vicious cycle of crime fueled by the inefficiency of the judiciary to exercise deterrence in administering sentences. The aim of the penal system is to exercise deterrence and retribution to offenders and other like-minded individuals. It is therefore the role of the judiciary to uphold this principle and protect the rule of law. In that regard, this paper shall analyze the past, current and future issues affecting the court system. The justice system is faces a myriad of issues currently. Apart from the normal difficulty of administering justice and protecting the rule of law, courts are facing difficulties with the victim’s rights issues and translation issues due to language barriers. The most severe of issues faced by the justice system, courts, and administrators is the enormous task of handling huge chunks of cases piling everyday in the prosecutor’s desk. Perhaps t his is the major reason why prosecutors are under immense pressure, resulting in dropping cases daily. Nevertheless, the courts in current times are marred with a premise of delayed cases that never seem to see their day in court. This situation befits the legal maxim as quoted by William Ewart that justice delayed is justice denied. However, court administration may at times see it fit to rush the court proceedings to clear up the backlog and congestion of the cases scheduled for hearing. Dire consequences may result from such haste to hear and determine cases, since court cases affect human lives, and due care is paramount in discharging justice. After all, courts were not fashioned to operate in such a hasty manner. It is obvious that the criminal justice system is overburdened; this has in turn exerted a ripple effect in the prosecutor’s office. More and more felony cases are dumped as plea bargains. This is both good and bad. Since the perpetrator of a felony accepts a p lea bargain for a lesser charge and gets a lesser penalty for that charge. Although it is a beneficial tact in time conservation, but it grossly, undermine the purpose of existence of any judicial system anywhere. The purpose of the court system is to provide justice, and punish the wrongdoer. Furthermore, in the discharging of justice, the judicial system has a role of deterrence and retribution via the correction facilities. Therefore, if deterrence from crime is a function of the judicial system, then it should not merely dispense lesser sentence due to time management. Proper judgment should be administered to console and restitute the injured party. While it is beneficial for the court to manage their time through plea bargains, criminal offenders and other likeminded individuals are not effectively deterred from criminal activities since consequences are less severe. The prevailing uninhabitable conditions of correction facilities due to overcrowding, communicable diseases pre valence, intrinsic violence, and being strikingly counterproductive schools for crime that churn out hardened convicts (Muraskin, R. & Roberts, R. 2009), contributes to the courts reluctant state from issuing harsher sentences. Nevertheless, the tendency of the courts to ignore the deterrence factor of sentencing, has contributed to a vicious cycle of criminal activity that perhaps has contributed to the heightened backlog of cases. This is increasingly causing many challenges to the